Citizen science reveals the presence of five species of hammerhea…


A single of the penalties of globalization is the introduction of invasive species. Large hammerhead flatworms, or land planarians, up to 40 cm (in excess of 1 foot) in size, are noted from France and abroad French territories by an intercontinental workforce led by Jean-Lou Justine of ISYEB (Muséum Nationwide d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France). This is the very first examine of this invasion, claimed in an report to be posted in the open-entry journal PeerJ.

Various invasive flatworms, which include the New Guinea flatworm, Platydemus manokwari, have now been noted from France. Most of these species, on the other hand, are smaller animals, much less than 5 cm (2 in) in duration. The hammerhead flatworms are giants amongst flatworms, with some species reaching up to 1 m in duration. Based on contributions from citizen science, five species of hammerhead flatworms are claimed from metropolitan France in Europe and from French abroad territories in the Caribbean, South The us, Africa and Oceania.

Hammerhead flatworms are predators of soil animals, together with earthworms, and hence are a feasible danger to the biodiversity of indigenous animals and to soil ecology, while the ecological impact has nonetheless to be researched.

Two species noted from France, Bipalium kewense and Diversibipalium multilineatum, are big species, up to 40 cm in duration. A person reasonably little species, Bipalium vagum, was observed in most tropical French territories, like Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Barthélemy, French Guyana and La Réunion. A single species, Diversibipalium sp. “blue” described from Mayotte, a French island off the African East Coastline, shows an amazing turquoise glitter colour.

Observations ended up mainly based mostly on citizen science, with additional than 100 contributions received, like some dating as back again as 1999.

Molecular research, dependent on the Cytochrome Oxidase Form 1 sequences, present that the species exhibit no genetic variation. Bipalium kewense had a solitary haplotype, identified in 5 continents. The species are clonal (genetically equivalent) and reproduce asexually.

The authors had been impressed to learn that conspicuous 40-cm prolonged worms could invade a created European region for extra than two many years with no any reaction from scientific authorities.

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Citizen science reveals the presence of five species of hammerhea…